In this type of dialysis, an artificial unit called a dialyser mimics the action of the nephron. To undergo hemodialysis, a person must first undergo a minor surgical procedure to create a vascular access to connect the blood circulation to the dialysis machine via needles/tubing.
If AV fistula is not present then dialysis is done through jugular / subclavian /femoral vein catheterization. A main procedure for a dialysis catheter is needed. Else minor surgery is called an AV (arterio-venous) fistula or simply a fistula. Once this is done, a person does not have to worry about the discomfort being “stuck” with catheter for each session of dialysis. Most people undergo 1-4 dialysis sessions per week, for about four hours each time.